input output ratio: How Input-output Ratio of Materials Can be Used as Performance Measure India Dictionary

25 diciembre, 2020

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Signal attenuation within the optical fibers is usually expressed in the logarithmic unit of the decibel. They write new content and verify and edit content received from contributors. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Britannica celebrates the centennial of the Nineteenth Amendment, highlighting suffragists and history-making politicians. While this global health crisis continues to evolve, it can be useful to look to past pandemics to better understand how to respond today. Engaged and motivated employees in turn help reduce turnover for your company.

This is recorded at a supplementary section at the bottom of one of the charts preferably the one that comes later. To record the intake two separate charts may be used for the each of the line. The shift total is made up by adding the total for each line. However to avoid confusion, for recording of the Output only on one of the charts should be used .

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input output ratio may need to be measured at the end of a shift or more often (e.g. hourly). Currently, the urinary catheter is attached through into a collapsible plastic with markings. The amount can be read from these markings or by emptying the entire content of the bag into a measuring jug when it is full or at the end of the shift or day. When there is a necessity to chart the patient’s fluid balance, the urine is collected and measured.

In emergency situations when fluid is given rapidly, the nurse ensures that the actual amount required as ordered is given at the speed required. It may be beneficial to record the amount every hour in the amount “gone in” column. Instruction on Extra LabelWhere IV infusion has been started on a previous shift, the nurse would record the amount of fluid left in the pack/bottle as the amount carried over. If the pack is finished in the middle of the shift, the volume in the replacement pack is recorded as the amount set up. Normally the empty chart is pre-printed and the data is entered in ink.

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Where the rest of the bowel has limitations in motility or absorption, then milk and other formulas may be given. The intermittent bolus feeding method usually works well for gastrostomy feeding. When two separate charts or a chart with two sections are used, the total for each section is added to give the shift total.

This technique has been criticized because there are several location quotient regionalization techniques, and none are universally superior across all use-cases. By giving up 1 unit of C1 society can, therefore, procure for itself A01/A02 units of C2. The straight line constant cost nature of the transformation curve reflects not only the linearity of the technology, but also the presence of only one primary factor and the absence of joint production. There exists fixed coefficients of production, i.e., he supposes that it takes a certain minimal input of each commodity per unit of output of each commodity. In turn, the output of many other industries will enter into the steel industry as inputs and, consequently, the ‘correct’ levels of other products will depend partly upon the input requirements of the steel industry.

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I stick to the performance literature notation of inputs x, outputs y, and intermediate inputs z. In the general equilibrium literature, including Debreu , the notation is inputs z, outputs x, and intermediate inputs y. In the old days, or 1990, us ordinary people had to learn by doing. We had to gather all of the information we could from people, books, classes, and libraries and then ‘try it out’ in the real world. It created an inherent balance of input and output to fully grasp a concept. Since labour is the only cost-generating element in the system.

The ratio can help you determine how productively your employees have sold, produced, or developed your product and how it has affected your cash flows. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, labor productivity is the ratio of the goods and services produced to the labor hours required for the production process. In the economy of the Soviet Union, planning was conducted using the method of material balances up until the country’s dissolution. The method of material balances was first developed in the 1930s during the Soviet Union’s rapid industrialization drive. Input–output planning was never adopted because the material balance system had become entrenched in the Soviet economy, and input–output planning was shunned for ideological reasons. As a result, the benefits of consistent and detailed planning through input–output analysis were never realized in the Soviet-type economies.


The labor productivity ratio will undoubtedly vary depending on your industry, like production or service. To calculate this measure of productivity, you can use human capital, material required, etc., as input and sales, customer loyalty, etc., as the outputs. There has been research on disaggregation to clustered inter-industry flows, and on the study of constellations of industries.

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The induced, or tertiary, impact would result from the workers of suppliers purchasing more goods and services for personal consumption. This analysis can also be run in reverse, seeing what effects on inputs were likely the cause of observed changes in outputs. As instructed above, the core input–output table reports only intermediate goods and services which are exchanged amongst industries.

Feeding can be given via a nasogastric tube as a temporary measure in the situation where a patient cannot swallow. For feeding for longer periods, creating a gastrostomy for the purpose is better. Usually, the intermittent bolus feeding method is used for this route.

The time of feed is indicated but since it is to be given as a bolus it is not necessary to indicate the period. In between feeds, the tube is closed with a spigot and patients can move about if they are able to. The plan also acts as an order to the unit supplying the feeds (e.g. the kitchen). A fine feeding tube can be placed so that it ends in the duodenum or jejunum using endoscopy or radiology imaging. It is indicated when there is gastric stasis or risk of aspiration as well as for acute pancreatitis and hyperemesis.

  • If the urine bag is full, the urine is discarded and the amount recorded.
  • For example, if your company earns $700,000 per month manufacturing and selling garments, you can use the productivity ratio to calculate the revenue generated by each employee per hour.
  • Other strains of economic principle also contribute to our present understanding, including socialism’s view of labor as one of the components.
  • Finally, the high labour costs, especially in the retail trades, which are a special feature of the developed countries also contribute to high marketing.

Fluid may be given also via an arterial line to keep it patent. In children, this amount is significant enough to be recorded. If fluid is to be given using more than one method or via more than one site then the order should be documented on a slightly different type of form. Some 300 ml of water is also excreted together with faeces and is also not usually measured. In cases of diarrhea, significant amount of fluid may be lost with the stool.

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Then it is possible to determine the total quantities of various goods that must be produced to obtain a given amount for final consumption. As such, despite having the same basic underlying formula, the productivity ratio for different forms of production looks different. Some of the most common examples of inputs are labor hours, materials, capital, etc., whereas common examples of output include sales, amount of goods produced, etc. The input–output model is one of the major conceptual models for a socialist planned economy.

Therefore just replacing the Nasogastric aspirate is not enough. Judgment on the fluid need must be based on the diminishing urine output, increased pulse rate and drop in blood pressure. To measure the loss, one method is to read from markings on drainage bags / bottles. After reading the loss for the current period, she may use an ink marker or tape to indicate on the bag or bottle the level when it was last read. The amount at the end of a shift is calculated by subtracting the amount of the previous reading from the accumulated amount.

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On the contrary, the doctor probably hoped that she will start with Normal saline and the alternate with Dextrose 5%. The assumption is also made that the nurse knows she should add only 1 gm of KCL per 500 ml of fluid. It is routine for doctors to order IV fluids to meet the needs of a 24 hour period. Strictly, doctors should order IV fluids for the duration that they are required.

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Self-Service shopping, which has gained a considerable momentum in recent years, endeavors to minimize the impact of high labour costs, but it is not a magical device to reduce the overall costs to a significant extent. It merely eliminates the small fraction of the costs due to those retail services that come to be performed mainly by the consumer. Consumers today are increasingly demanding that their food and agricultural non-food requirements be met in more and more finished form.


Although the availability of physical facilities has a direct bearing on marketing efficiency, to treat it as an important efficiency is questionable. The formula to calculate work efficiency is the ratio of output to input expressed as a percentage. … This is used across different methods of measuring energy and work, whether it’s energy production or machine efficiency. Input-output analysis is a type of economic model that describes the interdependent relationships between industrial sectors within an economy. It shows how the outputs of one sector flow into another sector as inputs. Wassily Leontief, who was a Soviet-American economist, developed the input-output analysis method, earning him the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1973.

They can either show flows of final and intermediate goods and services defined according to industry outputs (industry × industry tables) or according to product outputs (product × product tables). The tra­ditional approach of measurement of agricultural productivity, how­ever, does not take into account of social and environmental costs which are also incurred in the production of crops and raising live­stock. Urine, though an output, is not normally considered as a loss because urine production is a normal mechanism for the excretion of products of metabolism. In normal circumstances, if too much urine is produced the commonest reason is that more fluid than what is required has been given to the patient. A common mistake is to increase the intake to catch up with the urine output. While the doctor may order the total volume for a 24 hour period, the nurse need to take into consideration how the fluid is to be provided.

But the speed and accuracy of performing them can affect your overall productivity. You can use this productivity measurement to determine how many tasks are completed by a person, team, or department. Some businesses may prefer this method since it calculates only one input independent of others.

It is quite impossible to have charts with columns for more than two sites or routes. The amount of fluid put up is the amount in the pack/bottle or the chamber if a set with a chamber is used . If a syringe is used with a pump, then the amount set up would be the amount drawn into the syringe . The need for mixing to the correct concentration and asepsis is also applicable if pharmacists are to make the additions. The workload of the pharmacy will be increased and the staff available may not be able to cope.

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